Tuesday, January 15, 2013

A pulmonary embolism (PULL-mun-ary EM-bo-lizm), or PE, is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The blockage usually is due to a blood clot that traveled to the lung from a vein in the leg.

A clot that forms in one part of the body and travels in the bloodstream to another part of the body is called an embolus (EM-bo-lus).

PE is a serious condition that can cause:

Permanent damage to part of your lung from lack of blood flow to lung tissue
Low oxygen levels in your blood
Damage to other organs in your body from not getting enough oxygen
If a blood clot is large, or if there are many clots, PE can cause death

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism?

Major Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE) include unexplained shortness of breath, problems breathing, chest pain, coughing, or coughing up blood. An arrhythmia (an irregular heartbeat) also may indicate PE.

In some cases, the only signs and symptoms are related to deep vein thrombosis (DVT). These include swelling of the leg or along the vein in the leg, pain or tenderness in the leg, a feeling of increased warmth in the area of the leg that's swollen or tender, and red or discolored skin on the affected leg. See your doctor at once if you have any symptoms of PE or DVT.

It's possible to have a PE and not have any signs or symptoms.

Other Signs and Symptoms

Sometimes people who have PE have feelings of anxiety or dread, lightheadedness or fainting, rapid breathing, sweating, or an increased heart rate.

How Can Pulmonary Embolism Be Prevented?

Preventing pulmonary embolism (PE) begins with preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Knowing whether you're at risk for DVT and taking steps to lower your risk are important.

If you've never had a deep vein clot but are at risk for one, you can take steps to lower your risk.

Exercise your lower leg muscles during long car trips and airplane rides.
Get out of bed and move around as soon as you're able after having surgery or being ill. The sooner you move around, the lower your chance of developing a clot.
Take medicines to prevent clots after some types of surgery (as your doctor prescribes).
Follow up with your doctor.

Friday, January 4, 2013


If your skin is cut in some way your bleed. This is good to some extent because the bleeding washes away microbes that may have got through your skin. The bleeding cannot be allowed to go on for too long though, because as you bleed you are losing valuable materials that your body has worked to get for you.


Very quickly after you are cut a blood clot starts to form. This provides a temporary covering over the wound to allow new cells to seal the cut underneath.

Stages of blood clotting

The clotting process is a complex one, but simplified it involves an enzyme thrombin produced by blood platelets at a damage site changing a soluble protein fibrinogen in the blood into an insoluble protein called fibrin. This fibrin is what forms the mesh in the picture. Red cells then get stuck in this mesh and the whole thing dries pulling the wound together and sealing it.

Haemophilia - some people (usually males) lack one of the blood clotting factors, as a result of a genetic disease. As a result their blood doesn't clot and they are at risk of bleeding to death if injured. Hospitals provide them with the missing factor so they can inject this if it is required.

Thursday, November 18, 2010


To all Biology SPM candidates, here I have something to share as a quick revision. Hope it will help all of you.

Sorry, for taking too long to update the blog. This year is really a quite busy year, so much things to take care of. Hope, I wiil continue cintributing something in this blog for the benefit of everybody. Nayway, happy holiday to all especially my beloved Muzaffarians. To my form five, I'll always pray for your success and A+ for the Biology paper.

Thursday, April 1, 2010


List of food calories ( BM version)

Amount of calories in fast food

Knowing your energy requirement

If you're at a desirable body weight and have plenty of energy, your calories in food intake is probaly ok. However if you're gaining weight and feel tired a lot of the time, you may want to consider counting your intake of calories in food and changing your daily diet, because as you ingest extra calories your body will convert the excess energy to body fat and this will lead to weight GAIN !!!!!

Try estimating your own energy requirement so that you will be aware of the food that you take.

How to Count and Calculate Calories

Monday, March 29, 2010


In February and March 2010, I took a group of 12 students to the Melaka Biotechnology Coorporation for the Project Based Learning activity. The students were there to carry out a lab work to study the antimicrobial activity Ficus deltoidea (mas cotek), andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) , and centella asiatica (pegaga)against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus Faecalis and the anioxidant level of Phaleria Macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) and Strobilanthes crispus (pecah beling). I hope the activity will be a stepping stone for them to explore the world of Biotechnology when they leave school later.